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Ccuracy. In order to protect the confidentiality of the information, names were not included in the written questionnaires. The content validity of questionnaire was determined by a panel of five experts of different specializations. Experts' comments were taken into consideration in modification and revision. These experts generally agreed that the questionnaire was appropriately designed and dev
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To carry out the study. A verbal informed consent was obtained from each participant. The guidelines of the WHO including the importance of ensuring confidentiality and privacy were followed [13].Statistical analysisThis cross-sectional study was conducted in Erbil city between the 1st of October 2009 and the 30th of March 2011. A convenience sample of 800 Kurdish women aged 16?5 years attending t
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At the studied menopausal symptoms were four times more common among those who initially expressed an interest than among those who were not interested at the time of asking [25]. Thus, at a population level, the prevalence of symptoms is much lower, but we know nothing of whether the disturbance and variability among those who have symptoms is the same as in our trial. For comparison, we studied
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Slapping was still regarded as the commonest type and choking or burning was considered the least common. The lifetime prevalence of moderate physical violence was greater than that of severe physical violence (21 vs. 17.9 ). In contrast, the past year prevalence of severe physical violence was higher than moderate physical violence (8.9 , vs. 6.2 ). Details of lifetime and past year physical IPV
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Te partner violence against women in the Erbil city of the Kurdistan region, IraqHazha H Al-Atrushi1, Namir G Al-Tawil2, Nazar P Shabila2* and Tariq S Al-HadithiAbstractBackground: Violence against women is a worldwide problem and serious human rights abuse that occurs among all social, cultural, economic and religious groups. There is a paucity of research on intimate partner violence against wom
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At the studied menopausal symptoms were four times more common among those who initially expressed an interest than among those who were not interested at the time of asking [25]. Thus, at a population level, the prevalence of symptoms is much lower, but we know nothing of whether the disturbance and variability among those who have symptoms is the same as in our trial. For comparison, we studied
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Ing/burning Pat year (overall) Moderate physical violence (overall) Slapping on face* Pushing/shaking/throwing something* Twisting arm/pulling hair* Severe physical violence (overall) Hitting with fist/something Kicking/dragging Threatening/attacking with knife or gun Choking/burning*Moderate physical act. Severe physical act.Frequency of violence Once No. ( ) 2 ?5 times No. ( ) No. >5 times ( )(
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En who became widow within the last year and women whom husbands were accompanying them were excluded from the study. Widowed, separated and divorced women were excluded from the estimation of the prevalence of past year violence. The nature of the study was briefly described for each participant. All women were informed that participation in the study was voluntary and the data collected would no

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