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Ribution of CNKSR1 and nuclear p-ERK expression levels, possibly indicating regulation of MAPK pathway signaling less connected to absolute CNKSR1 expression levels. In addition, the SEER TMA studied has been used in multiple previous biomarker studies, several of which have been validated in additional larger cohorts [4, 22]. CNKSR1 may represent an additional prognostic marker in pancreatic canc
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Onse to antigenic tissue is predominately characterized by fibroblast and mononuclear cell infiltration with only modest inflammation and only partial matrix replacement of the graft. To describe the efficiency of the immune system in response to xenografts, they implanted the xenogenic based porcine patellar tendon, harvested from pigs to three different transplantation modality in rabbits includ
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S unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwis
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Ancer, particularly in BRAF-mutated colorectal cancer. Keywords: Colorectal cancer, BRAF, miRNA, miR-193a-3p, Anti-EGFR therapyBackground RAF family kinases, including BRAF and RAF1, function downstream of RAS as critical regulators of the MEK-ERK MAP kinase signaling pathway [1]. This RAS-RAF-MEKERK cascade is a key pathway, which contributes to human oncogenesis controlling the cell cycle, proli
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Ays. The association between miRNA expression status and the clinical outcome of patients treated with various chemotherapies was analyzed. Results: Within the top five of the miRNAs screened, we validated miRNA-31 (miR-31) and miR-135b as upregulated, while miR-193a-3p was down-regulated in BRAF-mutated cancer. Moreover, miR-193a-3p inhibited cell growth, and invasion of colorectal cancer cells.
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Erulescens green fluorescent protein; FACS: Flow-assisted cell sorting; SDS: Sodium dodecyl sulfate; MTS: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2(4-sulfophenyl)-2 H-tetrazolium; MTT: 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5diphenyltetrazolium bromide; CCD: Charge-coupled device. Competing interests None of the listed authors have competing interests related to the publication of this man
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Cal significance.Paraffin sections of our patient-derived glioblastoma xenografts (15 of 22 lines) were stained for galectin-1 expression. Around half of the xenografts tested showed preferential staining at the tumor-brain interface (Figure 3). A few tumors stained in their entirety, and another subset lacked significant staining. The 2 to 4 fold change in galectin-1 mRNA expression at the tumor
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Ental counterparts. We did not observe, however, distant invasion in U87MG tumors over-expressing galectin-1. The U87MG model is in fact weakly invasive in the brains of immunocompromized mice [33,34], while it is associated with pronounced neoangiogenesis processes [37]. Further work (e.g. viral transduction) with our patient-derivedToussaint et al. Molecular Cancer 2012, 11:32 http://www.molecul

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